Best Programming Languages 1

Top 15 Most Used Programming Languages in 2021

Javascript, PHP, Python, C, Ruby. In computing there are many programming languages ​​capable of creating or improving programs.

Some are basic to learning, others so complex that only the most experienced programmers can work.

With so many options, it is not easy to know which are the most used programming languages ​​that you can learn.

Choosing one is not easy.

Since this is a very recurring question, we wrote this guide to help you choose the best programming language based on your interests, personal motivations, and job market demand.

The list of the most used programming languages

To do the ranking, we use the TIOBE index, which is made by combining the number of web pages dedicated to a language. In addition, we also consider user searches in our course search engine.

1 – Java

2 – Language C

3 – Python

4 – C ++ language

5 – C #

6 – Javascript

7 – PHP

8 – Swift

9 – SQL

10 – Ruby

11 – Objective C

12 – R

14 – Elixir

15 – Go

Ranking of the most used programming languages

1) Java

Development history

James Gosling developed Java in 1990 at Sun Microsystems. Java adds to the capabilities of the C ++ language. Java is said to owe a lot to C and C ++ in terms of functionality and capabilities.

What is special about Java is that this is the first purely object-oriented programming language.

Where is it used?

Java uses the “write once, run anywhere” principle. This function adds portability to this programming language, since you simply need to compile the Java source code once, and then you can run the resulting application on any system, regardless of the operating system or hardware, as long as the system has Java Virtual Machine installed.

The Java language is used to develop business applications and video games. It can be used to develop web applications when used in conjunction with the Java Server Pages.

compile the Java source code once, and then you can run the resulting application on any system, regardless of the operating system or hardware, as long as the system has the Java Virtual Machine installed.


Java is in huge demand on the job market, with very attractive incentives. You cannot stop learning this language. This is, without a doubt, one of the best languages ​​that programmers can learn.

2) C language

Development history

Dennis Ritchie developed the C language in 1972 at Bell Labs. The C language has the legacy it has because it is the ancestor of several advanced programming languages ​​such as C ++, Java, C #, JavaScript, and Perl.

It is probably for this reason that C is the first programming course offered in universities, as it paves the way for learning other languages.

Where is it used?

The C language is used mainly to develop low-level applications, since it is considered the closest language to hardware among all languages, with the exception of the Assembly language.


C is definitely one of the best programming languages ​​you can learn, especially for newbies who want to build a long-term career in programming.

3) Python

Development history

Python was developed by Guido Van Rossum in 1991. Python was not used much in the past – however, in recent years the language has seen a huge increase in popularity due to how much Google has invested in the language over the last few years. 10 years.

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Python is another popular programming language, which is often considered the easiest language to learn due to its simplicity, readability, and simple, straightforward syntax.

Where is it used?

Currently several very famous and robust websites operate using this popular programming language, including,, and

Python is fast becoming the most widely used language by developers for artificial intelligence, machine learning, and deep learning projects.


Python increased in popularity from 2017 to 2018. Like PHP, Python also has associated web infrastructures that make it more convenient to develop web applications using that language.

It is also widely used for scientific computing, data mining, and machine learning. Its flexibility is what has made Python so popular.

4) C ++ language

Development history

Although the C language has been very well received over the years, it lacks object orientation. To address this problem, the C ++ language was developed in 1983, which is normally considered an object-oriented version of the C language.

Where is it used?

C ++ is one of the most widely used languages ​​in the world, and that is why it has a well deserved place in the list of the most used programming languages.

Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Winamp, and all Adobe Software applications were developed using C ++. Other than that, several advanced games and operating systems – such as Windows – have been developed in C ++ for its fast compilation and processing mechanism.


In addition, there is a wide demand for C ++ developers in the developer job market, and this demand is expected to continue to increase even further.

5) C #

Development history

C # belongs to the Microsoft family of programming languages, and was developed in 2000 as part of the first version of Microsoft’s prestigious .NET infrastructure. C # is very similar to Java in terms of its capabilities.

C # combines the robustness of the C ++ language with the advanced features of Java. So if you are good at programming in Java, it is extremely easy to learn to program in C #, and vice versa.

Where is it used?

The C # language is used to develop almost all types of applications that come with the Visual Studio integrated development environment. If you are developing a dynamic web application in ASP.NET, you will need to write code in C # or VB (Visual Basic) to write the background handling mechanism.

If you are developing a Windows Forms or Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) application, you will also need to write code in C #. Similarly, if you are going to develop an application for the Windows Phone you will also have to write code in C #.


C # combines the robustness of the C ++ language with the advanced features of Java. So if you are good at programming in Java, it is extremely easy to learn to program in C #, and vice versa.

Considering the importance of using the C # language in Microsoft applications, you should definitely consider learning it if you are looking to develop applications for Windows-based platforms.

The job demand for C # programmers is also good, and you will most likely be able to find a lucrative job as a C # programmer.

6) JavaScript

Development history

Javascript is one of the most popular languages ​​for web development due to its ubiquity and simplicity. Javascript was born in May 1995 and since then it has evolved a lot as a programming language.

In the beginning, the JavaScript language was designed to work on the client side, it ran exclusively in web browsers. Node.js brought the ability to work on the server side by transforming Javascript into a ubiquitous language.

In recent years, with the emergence of front-end JavaScript frameworks, it has reached the status of the most popular language in web development. It is present in 99.99% of browsers.

Where is it used?

Virtually every web page executes some form of JavaScript code, so you can be sure that a large amount of JavaScript code is executed daily during a Google search or when browsing through Facebook.

So this is a required language if you want to become a web developer on this course list. Nowadays, a full-stack web developer can use JavaScript alone, to create both the front-end and the back-end of a website!


Javascript is a very easy language to learn and very fast to use. This is another great reason to choose Javascript as your first language to study. If you already have some knowledge of Python or PHP, it will be even easier to master this language.

Also, the Javascript community is extremely vibrant, which is a deciding factor when deciding on a new programming language to learn. You can expect to find tons of e-books, tutorials, and especially important packages ready to go for your projects.

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There is a great chance that someone has already solved a challenge that you may face in the future and the solution is probably available online.

7) PHP

Development history

PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor – Hypertext Processor) is one of the most widely used programming languages, used all over the world to develop dynamic websites.

It was originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994, when he found a homemade solution to the overload problem of the web server hosting his personal page and resume.

After this, other people became interested in the program and it was in 1995 that Rasmus published the source code with the aim of exchanging ideas that lead to improvements.

Where is it used?

PHP is an open source language, which means that there are currently thousands of pre-built modules that can be modified to implement the desired functionality.


PHP is easy to learn – you just have to embed the code in HTML. In addition, there are hundreds of PHP-based platforms such as Joomla, WordPress, Drupal, which allow you to develop websites more conveniently.

PHP is a language that every programmer should learn if he or she plans to forge a career as a web developer. PHP is also an integral part of the famous LAMP platform (Linux Apache MySQL and PHP) that Facebook, Yahoo, and other famous websites use.

There is a huge job demand for PHP developers, although the pay is not as good as ASP.NET developers receive. Mind you, PHP developers can easily find decent jobs.

8) Swift

Development history

Swift was created by Apple to do development on iOS and MacOS devices. This language has a simpler syntax – for example, with just a few lines of code programmers can do much more than they could using the Objective-C language.

Where is it used?

The way this language combines security and speed makes Swift an excellent choice for programming everything from the typical “Hello world!” To an entire operating system.


Learning Swift has become an excellent introduction to modern programming concepts, and best practices to follow. Using Swift is a great way to write software, whether it’s for phones, desktops, servers, or any other system that runs code.

9) SQL

Development history

SQL was created in IBM labs to manage the data stored in System R. At first it was called SEQUEL, a name that is still used as an alternative pronunciation for SQL, but later it was renamed to just SQL.

Where is it used?

SQL is not a software development language, but a database query language. SQL stands for Structured Query Language (in Spanish, Structured Query Language). SQL provides a standardized way to interact with an application’s underlying database.


SQL is extremely simple to learn, and it is probably the closest language to English in terms of its syntax. Almost every application has a database in the background, and to be able to interact with that database you need a solid knowledge of SQL.

Like JavaScript, just knowing SQL won’t help you get a job. However, having a good command of SQL will help you stand out from the crowd.

10) Ruby

Development history

Designed by Yukihiro Matsumoto in 1995, Ruby is the foundation of Ruby on Rails, a web development infrastructure with which many well-known websites have been built, including Github, Scribd, Yammer, Shopify, and Groupon.

Where is it used?

Similar to Python, Ruby is also a simple and readable programming language primarily focused on web application development.


Ruby is considered to be a combination of several of the most famous features of Lisp, Eiffel, and Perl. Ruby is also in wide demand in the job market, and Ruby developers are currently being paid very well for their work.

11) Objective C

Development history

Objective-C was initially developed at Apple by Brad Cox and Tom Love in 1983. The purpose of developing the Objective-C programming language was to address deficiencies in the C language.

Where is it used?

The main limitation of the C language was object orientation, which led many developers to create languages ​​that incorporated an object-oriented paradigm.

As a result, the C ++ and Objective-C languages ​​were developed. However, Objective-C became immensely popular due to its use in the development of applications for the iPhone and iPad.


A solid understanding of Objective-C could help you land a job at a company that develops software applications that are used on Apple hardware. Additionally, the freelance industry also has a huge demand for Objective-C programmers spanning the globe.

12) R

Development history

The R language is used for statistical computing, and statistical graphics generation was created in 1993. In addition to being a programming language, it is also a programming environment.

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Where is it used?

R is widely used in the fields of data science and machine learning. This language is highly extensible, and provides a wide variety of statistical and graphical techniques.

Due to its expressive syntax and easy-to-use interface, it has become a popular language in recent years. You can download R for free, which is under the GNU license. Their packages are available under the same license so that you can use them even in commercial applications.

R can run on all platforms – Windows, Linux and Mac. If we analyze who uses R we see that academics are in first place, followed by the health care industry, while governments and consulting services are in third place.


Development history

MATLAB is an interactive system whose basic information element is a matrix that does not require dimensioning. Created in 1970, this system allows many numerical problems to be solved in just a fraction of the time it would take a developer to write a similar program in other languages.

Where is it used?

MATLAB is used to carry out numerical analysis, matrix calculations, and signal processing and graphing, in an easy-to-use environment where problems and solutions are expressed only mathematically, unlike traditional programming.


Engineers and scientists in both work and academics use MATLAB for projects in deep learning and machine learning, signal processing, communications, image and video processing, control systems, test and measurement, computational finance, and computational biology.

14) Elixir

Development history

Elixir was originally created in 2012, but since then it has generated a very active and collaborative community around it. This is one of the factors that have made this language quickly become popular.

Where is it used?

Elixir is an open source language that runs through the Erlang Virtual Machine (created by Ericsson), whose main objective is to provide productive programming for secure and easy-to-maintain applications, taking advantage of the resources of the virtual machine on which it is built. without losing performance. Developed by José Valim (a Brazilian engineer), Elixir was first announced in the Ruby / Rails community, as that’s where the creator comes from.


Mainly used by web developers, Elixir is being used by companies like Pinterest, Moz, Bet365, WhatsApp, and others.

15) Go

Development history

Go is an open source programming language created by Google in November 2009. It is a compiled language focused on concurrent programming and productivity.

Where is it used?

Go’s syntax is similar to C’s (with garbage collector and a vast standard library), and unlike Java, associative vectors and strings are an intrinsic part of the language. With Go, it’s easy to build simple, reliable, and efficient software.


Currently, it is widely used by large companies, such as Google, Adobe, Dropbox, Github and Netflix. Job offers for experts in this language are skyrocketing by the minute.

Job opportunities with the most used programming languages

According to one of the most recognized job search engines, this would be the current ranking of job opportunities in the programming area:

Programming Languages for 2016 graph 2

Which of these languages ​​should I choose?

You have been introduced to the most widely used programming languages ​​one could learn, their applicability in development professions, and their job demand, but the question remains…

Which programming language is the best?

But the truth is that only you can answer this question. Here are some factors that you should consider when choosing to learn a particular language.

  • What are the requirements of the application you want to develop? Is it a web, desktop, or mobile application?
  • What are your personal interests? Are you interested in commercial technologies, open source, or both?
  • What is the labor demand for the language in question?
  • What is the learning curve for that language?

Although these are some general guidelines, in today’s market conditions where competition is at its peak, in order to stand out from the crowd of current programmers you need to be proficient in at least:

  • A language for web development
  • A language for developing desktop applications
  • The use of at least one mobile platform
  • And a language to develop mobile applications

Source: Classpert